Evita Martha Dewi
SARJANA - Ilmu Ekonomi
|Asal Perguruan Tinggi||Universitas Indonesia|
|Nama Prodi||Ilmu Ekonomi|
|Judul Karya Tulis||inBank: Strategi Integrasi Lembaga Keuangan untuk Penyaluran Kredit Mikro di Indonesia|
|Topik Karya Tulis||Entrepreneurship dan atau Technopreneurship|
|Bidang Karya Tulis||IPS|
Financial Institution Integration as A Solution to Distribute Microcredits in
In Indonesia, Micro-Small Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) represent 97% of the existing business type, contribute to 57% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and absorb 96.9% of total employment. Because of their tremendous contribution to the nation’s economy, MSMES have an important role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as: “decent work and economic growth” (goal 8), “industry, innovation, and infrastructure” (goal 9), and “reduced inequality” (goal 10). However, currently MSMEs main problem is their access to formal financing. There are 70% of MSMEs that do not have access to credits from financial institutions. Because of that, most of the MSMEs heavily have relied on their own money and informal institution such as loan sharks for the financing of their business which will definitely hampers the development of the MSMEs. Loan sharks will heavily-burden the MSMEs because they need to pay a sky-rocketed amount of interest rate for the small amount of money they borrow.
There are several reasons why MSMEs prefer to use loan sharks rather than bank. First, loan sharks are able to provide easy way for the MSMEs to get quick cash (time-advantage). Second, loan sharks offer less-complex process for the MSMEs so that they don’t need to provide collateral or financial history. To solve this problem, the government introduced the Kredit Usaha Rakyat (KUR) program in which banks are obliged to allocate 20% of their credit for MSMEs. However, many believe that KUR has not been efficient because it is unable to reach small or medium enterprises for various reasons. Asymmetric information causes bank to not be able to measure the credit-worthiness of the small and micro enterprises. Banks also suffer from the issue of granularity in which the amount of credit given is small but is widely-dispersed making the credit distribution to be not cost-efficient. The issue of moral hazard cause the bank to be reluctant to bear huge cost to find a feasible MSMEs, therefore they only give the subsidized-credit to the customers they already know.
Therefore, to bridge the gap between the demand and supply side, the author proposes the solution of Integrasi Perbankan (inBank) to integrate all the financial service providers to work together to provide access for the MSMEs to formal financing. The author believes that in order to shift the type of financing used by MSMEs from informal to formal financing, we need to address the reasons on why MSMEs prefer informal financing to formal financing. To solve the problem of accessibility, inBank will provide two solutions. First, it would be a branchless banking solution in which the agent (such as Laku Pandai agents) will act as the agent that can provide financial literacy and recommendation for credit product that is suitable for the customer. The agent will then send the data to the bank so that they can process the credit and reach the MSMEs players without establishing a branch in the location. Second, it would work through linkage program of MFI and bank. In this linkage program banks will give additional capital to MFIs so that the MFI will help the bank to disperse the KUR to MSMEs. To solve the problem of the complex registration process and also asymmetric information, the bank should cooperate together with a FinTech company to deploy advanced credit-scoring method. Through this, the MSMEs will be able to get interest rate that represents the condition and risk of the customer in a short period of time. To solve the problem of time-disadvantage, inBank proposes to use mobile banking method in which the loan would be directly transferred to the MSMEs bank account that is integrated with their cell-phone number. After the loan is transferred, then the MSMEs can go to the nearest agent or ATM to cash the loan. This will reduce the cost of transferring the credit yet also reduce the number of unbanked population because the MSMEs will all have bank accounts. Mobile banking can also be used to provide easy payment method because customer can pay the credit directly through their phone. In conclusion, the author believes that empowering MSMEs through easy access to finance is one of the main key-driver to sustainable economic growth. Therefore, collaborative cooperation between every stakeholder is highly needed.
|1||Juara 1||Best Speaker Deloitte Risk Intelligence Challenge (RIC) ASEAN Round||2017||Regional||Lihat|
|2||Juara 1||Juara I The 15th Economix International Paper Competition||2017||Internasional||Lihat|
|3||Juara 3||Honorable Mention (Juara 3) of Asia Pacific Model UN Conference (AMUNC)||2016||Internasional||Lihat|
|4||Juara 2||1st Runner Up (Juara 2) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Presentation (SDGs) Challenge||2017||Internasional||Lihat|
|5||Juara 1||Best Delegate President Model United Nations (United Nations Security Council)||2016||Internasional||Lihat|
|6||Juara 1||Juara I International Microeconomics Challenge (IMC)||2017||Regional||Lihat|
|7||Juara 1||Juara I Lomba Esai Ekonomi Nasional Development Economics Event (DEE)||2017||Nasional||Lihat|
|8||Juara 2||Juara II Lomba Paper Ekonomi Nasional Equlibrium Science Fair (ESF)||2017||Nasional||Lihat|
|9||Juara 2||1st Runner Up (Juara 2) PwC Indonesia Business Case Challenge||2017||Nasional||Lihat|
|10||President (Ketua Umum) StudentsCatalyst Jabodetabek Region (Organisasi Mahasiswa Antar Perguruan Tinggi)||President (Ketua Umum) StudentsCatalyst Jabodetabek Region||2018||Nasional||Lihat|