SARJANA - Teknik Kimia

Asal Perguruan TinggiInstitut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
Nama ProdiTeknik Kimia
Judul Karya TulisBio-based EDLC (Electric Double Layer Capacitor) dari Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) dengan Metode Pirolisis Ammonia (NH3) sebagai Highly Efficient and Clean Energy Storage Device
Topik Karya TulisKedaulatan Energi
Bidang Karya TulisTERAPAN

File Karya Tulis Ilmiah

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Ringkasan KTISDGs or sustainable development goals are 17 goals with 169 measured targets which set by United Nation. The 7th goal of SDGs is about affordable and clean energy. Energy sector is the most important sector in Indonesia. It drives other sectors, such as economic, social, political, health, transportation and communication systems. National energy demands are strongly influenced by the rate of population growth. Indonesia's population reaches more than 262 million people with a population growth of 1.1% per year. A significant enhancement of population gives massive impact on energy demand which increase 1.6% every year. Until now, fossil energy is still becoming the dominant source of energy that causes Indonesia is faced with the problem of the prolonged energy crisis.    

The fossil energy supply is increasingly depleting, thus encouraging innovation in the renewable energy field. Alternative energy production must be supported by good and efficient energy storage device. High efficiency of energy storage device will reduce energy loss, so that energy can be stored properly. Batteries are the most commonly used and commercially produced energy storage device, such as rechargeable alkaline batteries, Ni-Cd Battery, Li-ion battery and Lead-acid. However, the use of hazardous and excessive amount chemicals in the battery causes these batteries are harmful for people and put the environment danger. In addition, the battery has major working principle of chemical reactions, so overheating will increase rate of reaction and explosion might be happen due to thermal runaway.  

Bio-based Electric Double Layer Capacitor becomes a promising alternative energy storage device. EDLC has higher energy density than batteries and fuel cells as well as higher power density than conventional capacitors. EDLC or supercapacitor can deliver 1000 times more energy than capacitors and 10 times more power than batteries. In addition, the supercapacitor has long life cycle that is more than 500000 cycles. It consists of sandwiched-electrodes with several other components. Carbon material on the electrodes can be synthesized from carbon-rich biomass. Ramie fiber becomes potential biomass that can be processed into EDLC material. This plant is very easy to grow in Indonesia but has low selling price. It contains cellulose up to 91%, hemicelluloses 5-17% and lignin only 0.6-0.7%. High content 
of cellulose with low content of lignin is an indicator of classified biomass. 

The conventional method of carbon synthesis uses three main stages: dehydration, carbonization and activation. Activation becomes an important stage, because carbon must be enhanced its characteristics in terms of porosity and surface area through chemical or physical activation or both. Physical activation is generally offset by chemical activation to obtain optimum results, but the process takes long time. In addition, characteristics enhancement can also be done with the formation of graphite oxide. However, these methods will take up to days. An effective activation method is needed to reduce the activation time, so that the production of carbon electrodes will be much faster at lower cost. NH3 ammonia gas is potentially used in pyrolysis processes.

Ammonia gas pyrolysis is expected to break through the method of biomass treatment into a much more effective EDLC. Less chemicals substance will minimize the pollution and waste so it is more environmentally friendly. The result of experiment shows that pyrolisis gas by ammonia enhanced the characteristic of biomass into carbon of EDLC much faster. Carbon C-N2 and C-NH3 were analyzed to compare the surface areas. This analysis proves that pyrolysis process using NH3 could etchant the surface of carbon, so that the surface area of C-NH3 was larger than C-N2. In fact, their FTIR-analysis shows different result. The result shows C-NH3 has peak in wave number 1633 cm-1 which is C-N bonding. In order to analyze the capabilities of the electrodes, CV (Cyclic Voltametry), SEM (Scanning Electron Spectroscopy) and EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry) were used in this experiment. The electrode from carbon NH3 has higher columbic efficiency than carbon N2; it reaches 24-45% however carbon N2 reaches 12-18%. Ammonia gas has special characteristic which able to etchant the surface of carbon and increase its characteristic. By using this method, we have synthesized biomass into Bio-EDLC electrode material 10 times faster than conventional method. Beside supporting SDGs, it is also being part of Industrial Revolution 4.0, where we need to produce industrial product faster, cheaper and more efficient. 

Prioritas Pencapaian Prestasi Tahun Tingkat
1 Juara 1 Chem-E Car Competition (Prototype Car powered by Chemical Reaction), United States 2017 Internasional Lihat
2 Juara 1 12th Malaysia Chem-E Car Competition , Pahang, Malaysia 2017 Internasional Lihat
3 Juara 1 3rd International Biotechnology Competition and Exhibition 2017, Johor Bahru, Malaysia 2017 Internasional Lihat
4 Juara 3 Poster Competition on Chemeca Chem-E Car Competition 2016, Adelaide, Australia 2016 Internasional Lihat
5 Finalist Intel International Science and Engineering Fair 2015, Pittsburgh, United States 2015 Internasional Lihat
6 Selected Delegate (Delegasi) YOUCAN Global Heroes in Kathmandu Nepal 2017 2017 Internasional Lihat
7 Juara 1 Indonesia Chem-E Car Competition 2016, Surabaya, Indonesia 2016 Nasional Lihat
8 Juara 1 Lomba Karya Tulis Ilmiah Nasional Envirofest 2016, Surabaya, Indonesia 2016 Nasional Lihat
9 Speaker (Oral Presentation) International Conference on Energy Engineering and Smart Materials (ICEESM), Bangkok, Thailand 2016 Internasional Lihat
10 Speaker (Oral Presentation) 24th Regional Symposium on Chemical Engineering (RSCE) 2017 Internasional Lihat

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