AMIN (ANTIBACTERIAL MILKING MACHINE) ALAT PERAH SUSU OTOMATIS TERMODIFIKASI MEMBRAN NANO KITOSAN/PVA/AgNPs SEBAGAI PENYARING DAN PEMBUNUH BAKTERI PADA SUSU
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Milk is one of the livestock products that is largely needed by Indonesian people to suffice their nutrition supplies. According to the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health in 2013, national milk consumption has increased to 2964 tons in 2011 and 3120 tons in 2012. However, Indonesia has not been able to well-supply milk for the people and milk produced by farms in Indonesia are still poor in quality. This has caused Indonesia to import a total of 144 285 tons of processed milk. Poor quality of the milk is caused by numbers of bacteria present in milk such as Streptococcus lactis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Eschericia coli, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Besides, milk is quickly decomposed and its protein is quickly damaged if not being processed immediately. Thus, the right and proper technology is needed to get rid of milk bacteria.Currently, the technology in Indonesia to deal with such problem is by applying pasteurization method. The purpose of pasteurization, beside to kill pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, is to prolong the milk shelf life and improve the quality of milk. However, pasteurized milk is prone to quick damage if the milk is stored at room temperature. It is also able to inhibit the growth of bacterial spores, and thus less effective in killing spores. In addition, if the temperature used during pasteurization process was not precise, it can lead to the loss of nutrition. This problem can cause decreasing price of milk and eventually unsold and discarded.
Nanotechnology is growing rapidly in the world today. In recent years, the use of
chitosan membrane and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been
reviewed and examined extensively especially nano chitosan membrane. One of its
purposes is to enhance the antibacterial tendency and
ultrafiltration on drinks. Membrane
is a selective permeable layer/barrier that allows the separation between two
fluid phase. Chitosan incorporated with PVA can be fabricated into ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration is a separation
process using membranes with pore size in the range of 10 - 100 nanometers. Ultrafiltration membranes can separate protein that have
a size between 3 - 6 nm and the bacteria which have a size between 500 – 5000
The common method used in producing this type of membrane is phase inversion method. Membrane phase inversion can be made of various kinds of polymers on condition that the polymer used must be soluble in a suitable solvent or solvent mixture. Advantage of this method is the fabricated membrane will produced smaller pore size, therefore it will produced ultra-filtration membrane. Generally, Chemical and physical methods may successfully produce pure, well-defined nanoparticles, but these techniques are more expensive, energy consuming and potentially toxic to the environment. In the other hand, there are an environmentally friendly technique to produce AgNPs using extracellular biosynthesis. Biosynthetic methods can employ either microorganism cells or plant extract for nanoparticles production. An exciting branch of biosynthesis of nanoparticles is the application of plant extracts to the biosynthesis reaction. Recently, the green processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles are evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology
Based on the problems and potential that exists, membrane
technology have the potential in eliminating
bacteria in the milk without damaging the nutrient content in the milk. The working principle of this device is that the milk is filtered by a semi-permeable membrane made of chitosan.
Chitosan has amine functional group (NH2) that are positively
charged and highly reactive so it is able to create
with the cell wall of bacteria that are negatively charged. Using the ratio of Chitosan 75%, PVA 23
3% porous membrane with pore
size in the range of 180 nm - 300 nm was successfully fabricated.
The pores of 180 nm-300 nm of
the fabricated membrane can filter that were 500-5000 nm.
The resulting membrane resistant to pH conditions in the milk is 6-7. As the
result this device can produce milk with optimum nutrients without bacteria. With
this device we can improve the quality of milk in
Indonesia and reach SDGs number 3 (good health and well being)
Juara 1 Lomba National Scientific Essay Competition 2017